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Gift of Elena Bonner to The Andreĭ Sakharov Archives and Human Rights Center at Brandeis University, 1993.

Names appearing in this finding aid usually appear in inverted order and have not been standardized, nor were they necessarily transliterated consistently; users are advised to try alternate spellings when searching.

Andreĭ Sakharov (1921-1989) was born May 21, 1921, into a Moscow family of cultured and liberal intelligentsia.

Quantity: 1 collection (57 linear feet (137 boxes)Language of materials: The collection is predominantly in English and Russian; there is also material in Bulgarian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, French, German, Hebrew, Hungarian, Icelandic, Italian, Japanese, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Spanish, and Ukrainian.

Abstract: Papers of Russian physicist and human rights activist Andreĭ Sakharov.

The exile continued until December 16, 1986, when a telephone was installed in their apartment and Gorbachev called to invite Sakharov to come back to Moscow and to perform "patriotic work." Back from Gorky, Sakharov sought to serve as a spokesman for democracy.

He was elected to the Presidium of the Academy of Science and the Congress of People's Deputies; he was appointed a member of the government commission to draft a new Soviet constitution.

Although his paternal great-grandfather had been a priest in the Russian Orthodox Church and his mother had had him baptized, his father was an atheist.

Sakharov married Klavdia Alekseyevna Vikhireva in 1943; they had two daughters and a son before her death in 1969.

The publication of his essay, Reflection on Progress, Coexistence and Intellectual Freedom, an indictment of the Soviet system and a call to end the Cold War, in the New York Times in 1968 propelled him onto the world stage.

The "Sakharov doctrine" of the indivisibility of human rights and international security became the ideological backbone of the human rights movement.

Houghton Library, Harvard Library, Harvard University Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 USA© President and Fellows of Harvard College Production of this online guide was funded by a gift from Stephen B. Location: b Call No.: MS Russ 79Repository: Houghton Library, Harvard Library, Harvard University Creator: Sakharov, Andreĭ, 1921-1989.